The roots of Medical English Worksheet 1

All the words and expressions below are used in English, and most of them are used in many other languages too. Which languages did they originally come from (some languages appear several times)?

A: beef, sauce, soup, sauté, marinade, mayonnaise, picnic, omelette, crepe, buffet, gourmet, marron, fillet, consommé, potage, hors d’oeuvre, café au lait, pain au chocolat, petit pois, champignon, chef, croissant, a la carte, croquette, sommelier, menu, champagne, rose, restaurant, roast, sirloin, soufflé, entrée, escargot, chef

B: violin, gallery, studio, dome, balcony, solo, sonata, prima donna, cello, finale, concerto, cello, opera, staccato, a cappella, allegro, aria, concerto, tempo, viola, baritone, falsetto, vibrato, legato, tremolo, sonata, biennale, bassoon, harmonica, piccolo, arpeggio, coda, glissando, mezzo soprano, scherzo, pianoforte,

C: genre, grand prix, matinee, montage, encore, renaissance, chanson, ballet, cabaret, collage, crayon,

D: yogurt, kiosk, coffee, turquoise, turkey, mammoth,

E: carpet, mascara, medal, charisma, ghetto, motto, portfolio, influenza, malaria, America, bank, casino, tarantula, torso, mafia, gondola, fascism,

F: trophy, umpire, croquet, parachute, relay, rifle, sport, etude,

G: broccoli, minestrone, latte, macaroni, cappuccino, espresso, pizza, pasta, spaghetti, farfalle, vermicelli,

H: tea, ketchup, lychee, wonton, oolong, mah-jong, feng shui, kung fu, silk, Tiananmen Square

I: aerobics, athlete, marathon, Olympic, gym(nasium),

J: punch, bungalow, pyjamas, shampoo, chutney, Himalaya, jungle, sari

K: denim, suede, negligee, haute couture, chic, prêt a porter, eau de cologne,

L: rickshaw, tycoon, (the head) honcho, koan, butoh, satori, hara-kiri, shiatsu, aikido, Ainu, Akita, anime, bonsai, bushido, futon, geisha girl, haiku, judo, kabuki, karaoke, kendo, kimono, ninja warriors, noh, origami, otaku, pachinko, salaryman, samurai warrior, shogun, sumo wrestling, tatami matting, yakuza, zaibatsu, shinto, Zen Buddhism, tsunami, typhoon, kaizen, reiki, kamikaze

M: robot, polka, pistol

N: zero, orange, alcohol, lemon, safari, saffron, syrup, sherbet, monsoon, jasmine, sofa, caramel, monkey, mirror, mattress, jar, mosque, Islam, Koran, minaret, O: okra, chimpanzee, zombie, banjo, jazz, voodoo,

O: debut, façade, esprit, fiancé, rendezvous, hostel, bidet, elite, hotel, silhouette, sabotage, camouflage, coupon, etiquette, raison d’etre, route, syndicate, tampon, visa, zigzag, coupe, metre, petit bourgeois, attaché, coup d’etat,

P: dollar, nickel, genome, seminar, neurosis, brake, heroin, menthol, muffin, noodle, poodle, pretzel, quartz, rocket, rucksack, scoop, snorkel, lager, waltz, Anglo Saxon, dachshund, edelweiss, yodel, sauerkraut, hamburger, frankfurter, Nazi,

Q: brandy, coleslaw, cookie, pickle, scone, snack, waffle, boss, Santa Claus, sketch, stove, Yankee, wagon, dot (matrix), drill, easel, etch(ing), gallop, holster, fumble, plug, mannequin, lob, knapsack, cam, holster, gallop,

R: comma, colon, alphabet, academy, apostrophe,

S: museum, harmonica, anthology, baritone, graphics, theme, music, xylophone, drama, symphony, scene, theatre, thesaurus, character, melody, mime,

T: satsuma, soy (sauce), miso soup, sake, nori, sashimi, soba, tempura, tofu, wasabi, shiitake,

U: haemoglobin, angina, allergy, atherosclerosis, anabolic (steroid), atomizer, cloning, cholera,

V: krypton, ceramic, isotope, kilo, mega(byte), mechanic, micrometer, amoeba, giga(byte), analysis, mnemonic, neon, halogen, amalgam, asbestos, automatic, siphon, television, microphone, helicopter, crystal,

W: trawl, cruise, deck, dock(ing), yacht, pump, block,

X: acrobat, echo, hero, panic, panorama, pyramid, anchor, atlas, catholic, Christ, alphabet, automatic, charisma, almond, aniseed, asparagus, anarchism, democracy, anti,
——————————————————————————————————–
Japanese, Turkish, Dutch, Hindi, French, Italian, (various) Chinese languages, Arabic, German, Czech, Greek
Which languages have many words from these categories:
words spelt with ‘ph’ for /f/; words spelt with ‘ce’ and ‘ci’ for /ch/; words with a silent last consonant, e.g. ‘et’ as /ei/;Food; sailing and boats; clothes and fashion; artistic; punctuation; sports; scientific, medical and technical;

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Answer Key
A: French, B: Italian, C: French, D: Turkish, E: Italian, F: French, G: Italian, H: Chinese languages, I: Greek, J: Hindi, K: French, L: Japanese, M: Czech, N: Arabic, O: French, P: German, Q: Dutch, R: Greek, S: Greek, T: Japanese; U: Greek, V: Greek, W: Dutch, X: Greek

Which languages have many words from these categories:
words spelt with ‘ph’ for /f/; Greek
words spelt with ‘ce’ and ‘ci’ for /ch/; Italian
words with a silent last consonant, e.g. ‘et’ as /ei/; French
Food; French, German, Arabic, Chinese, Italian
sailing and boats; Dutch
clothes and fashion; French
artistic; French, Dutch, Greek
punctuation; Greek
sports; French
scientific, medical and technical; Greek

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