Health and exercise generalisations and recommendations

Health vocabulary/ Useful language for writing reports/ Hedging language

Objective Proficiency Unit 14

Use phrases like those below to explain people’s attitudes to, actions related to etc on environment issues, making sure that you use the right level of phrase. Note that the phrases are not in order below. Does your partner agree?

According to

Amongst people I know

In my experience

I get the feeling that

(From discussions I’ve had on the subject) I have formed the impression that

A survey has shown that

It wouldn’t surprise me if

(absolutely) all

a considerable number of/ a substantial number of people

a small minority of

a substantial minority of

a tiny minority of

almost all

almost no

many people/ a large number of people

most people

not many/ few

practically all

practically no

quite a lot of/ a fairly large number of

the vast majority of

very few

very nearly all

virtually all

virtually no

 

activists

baby boomers

civil servants

companies

doctors

experts

Generation X

middle-aged people

midwives

millennials

nurses

people in developed countries

people in developing countries

people in East Asia

people in this city

people in this country

politicians

researchers

retired people

rich people

students

teachers

teenagers

the middle class

the upper middle class

voters

young children

young people

 

almost always

almost never

always/ without fail

hardly ever

occasionally

often/ frequently

seldom/ rarely

usually/ generally

———————————

accept

are (un)informed about

are concerned/ worried about

are confused by

are considering

are cutting down

are (well) informed about

are interested in

are sceptical about

aren’t…

believe

buy

can afford

can’t…

consider

discuss

don’t…

expect

go to

have opinions on

ignore

know about

listen to/ watch

look into

misunderstand

panic about

pay attention to

prioritise

read

realise

spend money on

support

think about

trust… on

try to…

understand

use

visit

vote for

wonder about

would(n’t)…

(chronic) tiredness

(chronic/ intensive/ low-level/ persistent) pain

(complex) carbohydrates

(lung/ breast/ skin) cancer

(male) menopause

(Zika) virus

aerobic exercise

allergies

alternative therapies (moxibustion, acupuncture, homeopathy, etc)

antibiotic(s) (resistance)

anti-oxidants

assisted suicide/ euthanasia/ right to die

bacteria

birth control

blood donation

calories

cholesterol

cloning

DNA testing

diarrhoea

digestion

endorphins

epidemics/ pandemics

(rigorous) exercise

exercise fads

(dietary) fibre

fitness/ keeping fit

folk medicine

gene therapy/ stem cells

generic drugs

health scares

heart attack

herbal remedies (Chinese medicine etc)

hormones

hospice care

immune system

insomnia

jogging/ running

lifestyle diseases (diabetes, gout, blood pressure, etc)

light exercise

medical expenses

medical technology (scans, endoscopes, lasers, etc)

medical use of marihuana

mental health

mind over matter

muscle (tone/ definition)

nursing homes

opiates

organ donation

outpatient care

over-the-counter medicines

painkiller (addiction)

PE

pharmaceutical companies

placebos

post-natal care

pregnancy/ ante-natal care

prescription drug addictions

prescription drugs

protein

psychosomatic illnesses

quacks

relaxation

running machine/ treadmill

saturated fats

six pack

sleeping tablets

snoring

sporting injuries

steroids

stimulants

stress

stretching

superbugs (MRMA etc)

supplements (vitamins etc)

surgery/ operations

tai chi

trans fats

treating yourself

vaccinations

weights/ weight training

what doesn’t kill you…

whole foods

Ask about anything above you don’t understand, making generalisations each time.

—————————–

Health and fitness recommendations

Give advice on how people’s health and fitness could be improved, by:

consumers/ patients/ the general public

the government

international organisations

(pharmaceutical) companies

hospitals/ healthcare professionals

etc

using the right level of strength of language each time.  Make sure that the phrases below are not in order.

Although it depends on your situation

For most people…

In this country

In the short term

In the medium term

As soon as possible

Over the long term

 

… could possibly…

… could…

… must make sure to…

… needs to…

… ought to…

… would be effective.

… would benefit from…

… would probably work.

….have no choice but to…

By far the best option is…

I would recommend…

I would suggest…

I’d advise…

It can’t hurt to…

It is necessary to…

It is worth considering…

It is worth…

It might be a good idea to…

It might be useful to…

It might be worth considering…

My (main) recommendation would be…

My (main) suggestion would be…

My advice would be to…

 

accept

attempt to

ban/ forbid

be sceptical about

build more

buy

consider

control

cut (down on)

decrease

do something about

find an alternative for

find out

fund

ignore

increase

invest money in

listen to

look into

monitor

pay attention to

prioritise

read

research

spend money on

stop

support

take an interest in

think about

trust… on

try to

use

visit

vote for

watch

worry (more) about

————————-

Generalising and giving advice language presentation

(absolutely) all

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

virtually no

 

 

always/ without fail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

almost never

 

 

….have no choice but to…

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It might be worth considering…

———————– 

Look at the mixed answers below to help. Some could be next to each other.

 

Look at the ones which are grouped together in the table above to help more.  

Check your answers below.

 

 


Mixed answers

(absolutely) all

a considerable number of

a fairly large number of

a large number of people

a small minority of

a substantial minority of

a substantial number of people

a tiny minority of

almost all

almost no

many people

most people

not many/ few

practically all

practically no

quite a lot of

the vast majority of

very few

very nearly all

virtually all

virtually no

 

almost always

almost never

always

frequently

generally

hardly ever

occasionally

often

rarely

seldom

usually

without fail

 

 


 

… could possibly…

… could…

… must make sure to…

… needs to…

… ought to…

… would be effective.

… would benefit from…

… would probably work.

….have no choice but to…

By far the best option is…

I would recommend…

I would suggest…

I’d advise…

It can’t hurt to…

It is necessary to…

It is worth considering…

It is worth…

It might be a good idea to…

It might be useful to…

It might be worth considering…

My (main) recommendation would be…

My (main) suggestion would be…

My advice would be to…

———————- 
Suggested answers

(absolutely) all

virtually all

practically all

very nearly all

almost all

the vast majority of

most people

many people/ a large number of people

a considerable number of/ a substantial number of people

quite a lot of/ a fairly large number of

a substantial minority of

not many/ few

a small minority of

very few

a tiny minority of

almost no

practically no

virtually no

 

always/ without fail

almost always

usually/ generally

often/ frequently

occasionally

seldom/ rarely

hardly ever

almost never

 

….have no choice but to…

By far the best option is…

… must make sure to…

… needs to…/ It is necessary to…

I would recommend…/ My (main) recommendation would be…/ My (main) suggestion would be…/ My advice would be to…/ It is worth…/ I would suggest…/ I’d advise…/ … would be effective./ … would benefit from…/ … ought to…

… would probably work.

It might be a good idea to…/ It might be useful to…

… could…

… could possibly…

It can’t hurt to…

It is worth considering…

It might be worth considering…


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